By Keith Robert Mosher, April 23, 2012
Rated G (pure science)
The predominately accepted theory of the creation of the universe is the Big Bang Theory. Accepting Big Bang we then accept an expanding universe but not necessarily without end. One of Einstein’s proposals was a closed universe. Given appropriate mass, gravitational forces reverse the expansion process leading to a Big Crunch – a rebounding, single universe or a cyclical monadic multiverse. Recycling at its best.
However it has been shown that the mass required for Einstein’s closed universe does not exist.* Moreover, modern observations show an ever rapidly expanding visible universe leading to discussions of Dark Matter and more importantly Dark Energy (Phantom Energy). These observations grow out of the Big Rip hypothesis; Caldwell, Robert R.; Kamionkowski, Marc and Weinberg, Nevin N. (2003). “Phantom Energy and Cosmic Doomsday.” Physical Review Letters 91 (7): 071301.
* Side Note: Some theorists currently speculate if neutrinos, the Higgs boson, and Dark Matter may account for the missing mass required to create a closed universe.
In the “Phantom Energy and Cosmic Doomsday” hypothesis, a force, Phantom Energy – currently labeled, “Dark Energy,” will continue the expansion of the universe until all things down to the subatomic level are pulled apart. In their discussion, Mr. Caldwell, et al., predict that at a finite point in time prior to the Big Rip the expansive force of Dark Energy will become so great as to overcome gravity itself, pulling galaxies apart. Shortly afterward, solar systems will be expanded beyond their capacity to remain bound and eventually pulling apart stars, planets, and in the last seconds – the Big Rip itself – tearing at the forces that hold atoms and subatomic particles together.
What effects will the early stages of the Big Rip have on Supermassive Black Holes? These large singularities are currently viewed as the central hubs of most of the observable galaxies. These objects, whose gravitational forces exceed the speeding photon and contain vast amounts of highly compressed matter down into a singularity, will not be immune to the Big Rip. As lesser gravitationally bound objects begin to separate, a greater force will be needed to tear these giants apart.
Black Holes evaporate. There is some speculation that prior to the Big Rip most Black Holes will have evaporated, discharging their material into space. Will not Supermassive Black Holes be the last of these? Moreover, while galaxies are being pulled apart during the Big Rip process, must not their cores still remain? Will there be sufficient time between the ripping of the galaxies and the Big Rip itself for the galactic cores to completely evaporate? Mr. Caldwell calculates the ripping of the galaxies to be around 60 million years prior to the Big Rip itself. In terms of a Supermassive Black Hole, 60 million years seems to be a short period of time.
Given that some Supermassive Black Holes may maintain their integrity after the ripping of galaxies but prior to the ripping of subatomic particles, an unusual set of circumstances must exist. Inward gravitational force holds light on the event horizon as well as other material within the core of the singularity, while the expansive force tugs outward on this same material. At some moment the expansive force must equal the strong gravitational force of the singularity and eventually surpass it. The Supermassive Black Hole will suddenly and violently rip apart. Any trapped light and matter will rapidly expand out into space. Is this not a Big Bang, a large volume of highly compressed material, presumably superheated via compression, suddenly exploding outward into a largely empty space?
Quantum Physics cannot define the condition of such highly compressed material. It is feasible that the matter and energy within such a singularity have become completely homogenous, a condition similar to the universe during the Planck epoch. Due to Dark Energy, the gravitational forces of the singularity are being neutralized, the expansion effect being greater than the attractive effect except within the event horizon of the singularity, which has just been breeched by the expansive force. The expansive force of surrounding space is still at play, resulting in “Inflation” of the material given up by the exploding singularity.
Alan Guth’s Inflation hypothesis states that, at around 10-33 seconds after the Big Bang, the young universe goes through rapid expansion at a rate even greater than the speed of light and helps to explain some of the homogeneity of the early universe. The event horizon and the matter initially being exploded out of the Supermassive Black Hole would be subject to the expansive force of the surrounding Dark Energy. This expansive force, coupled with the energetic release of the singularity’s material could create this Inflation effect – an overly rapid expansion – the material being pushed and pulled outward at a speed equal to or greater than the speed of light.
Any other Supermassive Black Holes in the ripping universe would be so distant as to be universes unto themselves. The speed of the expansive force would need to be at least equal to the speed of light to pull apart the event horizon of a singularity. As such, any light or other information between singularities is left stationary in its path, speeding within a space that is expanding around it at the same speed. This creates a boundary beyond which no information can pass. The expanded distances between Supermassive Black Holes, combined with the expansive force, leave light and other information unable to travel between them.
A question that will need to be examined is, what will be the effect of the sudden and rapid termination of the singularity and its gravitational well? Will the rebounding of the gravitational well from its collapsed state create an effect or energy within that local space that can neutralize the surrounding expansive force? Will this new Big Bang create its own Dark Energy and Dark Matter, encapsulating its own space? If so, the matter released from the singularity, as it expands and fills that space, should begin to cool, the laws of physics fall into place creating gravity, matter, et al. A new universe is born within the evaporated space of the previous, “outer” universe. Indeed, many universes are born within that ripped space each so remote as to be not perceivable by the others. Level I Multiverses born out of Ripped Supermassive Black Holes.
This gives rise to another question. Is it possible to create a universe out of a subset of the previous universe? A Supermassive Black Hole, while it contains huge amounts of matter, contains only a small portion of the surrounding universe. What needs to be answered is the result of the sudden and rapid termination of the singularity and what energies and forces that will unleash. Also, what effects will those forces have on the local space and the material being released from the singularity? Are the effects of Inflation, expansion, and the development of physical laws within a confined space, with the addition of Dark Matter and Dark (Phantom) Energy, sufficient to create enough matter to fill the local space as it expands, or must a universe’s amount of matter and/or energy exist within the initial singularity of a Big Bang?